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  Effectiveness of Azadirachtin (NeemAzal-T/S) in Controlling Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri) and European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi)
 
 
Titel: Effectiveness of Azadirachtin (NeemAzal-T/S) in Controlling Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri) and European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi)
Auteur: Dejan Marčić
Irena Ogurlić
Mirjana Prijović
Pantelija Perić
Verschenen in: Pesticidi i Fitomedicina
Paginering: Jaargang 24 (2009) nr. 2 pagina's 123-132
Jaar: 2009
Inhoud: Here we present the results of field trials conducted in Serbia to evaluate the effectiveness of a neem-based product, NeemAzal-T/S (containing azadirachtin-A as its active ingredient in the form of an emulsifiable concentrate) against pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri) and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi). Efficacy evaluation against C. pyri was carried out in a commercial pear orchard of the Williams pear cultivar, located at Borkovac (Ruma). The insecticides were applied at BBCH 09 pear growth stage, several days before the beginning of hatching of the first generation larvae. The efficacy of azadirachtin was compared to that of mineral oil, abamectin and diflubenzuron. Efficacy evaluation 18 DAT showed total termination of egg laying by C. pyri after treatments with azadirachtin and abamectin, while some new (white) eggs were found after treatment with mineral oil. Diflubenzuron treatment failed to fully stop egg laying, but the number of white eggs was significantly lower than it was in the control. Azadirachtin and abamectin achieved 100% efficacy, while the effectiveness of mineral oil was 97.4%, and that of diflubenzuron a mere 59%. All four insecticides significantly reduced the number of older (yellow) eggs and larvae, the efficacy being 80.5-92.6% (yellow eggs), 69.8-79.3% (larvae I-III instar) and 94.3-100% (larvae IV-V instar). In evaluation 38 DAT, azadirachtin,abamectin and mineral oil achieved 100% efficacy against white and yellow eggs, while diflubenzuron achieved 93% and 86.9% efficacy. All four insecticides were found to demonstrate high efficacy against I-III instar larvae (99.2-100%), but mineral oil treatmentalone achieved high efficacy against IV-V instar larvae (92.4%) as well. Efficacy evaluation against P. ulmi was carried out in a commercial orchard of the Red Chief apple cultivar located at Morović (Šid). Azadirachtin efficacy in controlling a summerpopulation of European red mite was compared to a mineral oil, clofentezine and spirodiclofen.The acaricides were applied when the number of P. ulmi motile forms was below the orientational damage threshold of 3 motile forms per leaf. Azadirachtin reduced significantly the number of motile forms, leaving it well below damage threshold by the end of the trial. Good control efficacy was achieved (77.2-90.4%), the highest level of efficacy being recorded at the end of the trial 38 DAT. In mineral oil treatment 7 DAT, efficacy was 92.4%; 14 DAT and 21 DAT it was 75.2% and 78.9%, and it dropped to below 60% at the end of the trial. The efficacy of clofentezine (39.4-68.2%) was unsatisfactory, which is probably the result of a resistance developing under high selection pressure of these compounds in the Morović locality in preceding years, while the newly introduced acaricide spirodiclofenshowed high and long-lasting efficacy (97.2%, 38 DAT). The results of the trials are discussed in terms of improving management of the populations of European red mite and pear psylla.
Uitgever: Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Protection (provided by DOAJ)
Bronbestand: Elektronische Wetenschappelijke Tijdschriften
 
 

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