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  Advance in the Culture Research of Small-Eye Flounder, Paralichthys microps, and Chilean Flounder, P. adspersus, in Chile
Titel: Advance in the Culture Research of Small-Eye Flounder, Paralichthys microps, and Chilean Flounder, P. adspersus, in Chile
Auteur: Silva, Alfonso
Verschenen in: Journal of applied aquaculture
Paginering: Jaargang 11 (2001) nr. 1-2 pagina's 147-164
Jaar: 2001-01-01
Inhoud: Over 71% of the aquaculture production of Chile is based on salmonids, and given the recents problems in the world salmon industry, it is necessary to investigate the culture of new species as a vital priority to maintain an industry of great social and economic impact for Chile. Small-eye flounder, Paralichthys microps, and chilean flounder P. adspersus, are native, high-value flatfish present off the coasts of Peru and Chile, that are commonly exploted by artisanal fishermen. Since 1986 both species have been objects of research studies for culture based on techniques developed for Japanese flounder. This paper is a review of current knowledge of this species and to identify research needs for the near future. Natural spawning of small-eye flounder and chilean flounder broodstock in captivity is already possible, but the manipulation of spawning using photoperiod and hormonal inducement, as well as the role of broodstock nutrition in egg and larval quality, needs to be explored. Successful incubation and larval culture protocol for both species have been developed, with larval survival over 24% from certain egg batches. Nutritional characterization and requirements for chilean flounder eggs and larvae during the culture period, optimal temperature, density, light intensity and green-water culture, are all subjects of ongoing research. Efforts to improve early culture protocol continues with emphasis on causes of larval mortality, early use of dry feed, microbial ecology of culture tanks and water quality. Weaning from live to formulated diets has been investigated, demonstrating survival of 30-50%. Presently only about 1-5% of hatchery raised flounder show a pigment disorder. Research on formulated diets and the weaning process are under way to ameliorate these results. Juveniles are being grown experimental in tanks and net pens systems and their performance (growth, survival, health) in both systems is being evaluated. Chilean flounder require approximately 2.8 years to reach 1 kg. Effort is also focusing on improving juvenile growing protocol, including recirculation systems, culture environment and diet formulation. Much future research will be required to attain optimal production of the species, such as species-specific nutritional requirements, optimum stocking density, disease and health management and growing protocols with new systems (shallow raceway). At present there is enough known about chilean flounder to begin a pilot-stage that will be the key for future development of its culture.
Uitgever: Taylor & Francis
Bronbestand: Elektronische Wetenschappelijke Tijdschriften

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